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2015年考研英語閱讀理解試題(二)
發布時間:2014年11月25日 瀏覽:1328 次

Aimlessness hashardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmonyare the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese areseeing a decline of the traditional work-moral values. Ten years ago youngpeople were hard-working and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being,but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs, and young people don'tknow where they should go next。

The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of womeninto the male-dominated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agerswho are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbingJapan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey, itwas found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied withschool life, compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. Inaddition, far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobsthan did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed。

While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics,Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning overcreativity and self-expression。“Those things that do not show up in the test scores—personality,ability, courage or humanity―are completely ignored,” says Toshiki Kaifu,chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's education committee。“Frustrationagainst this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild。” Last yearJapan experienced 2,125 incidents of school violence, including 929 assaults onteachers. Amid the outcry, many conservative leaders are seeking a return tothe prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was theneducation minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reformsintroduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarⅡhadweakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents。”

But that may have more to do with Japanese life-styles. “ In Japan,” sayseducator Yoko Muro,“it's never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life,but only how much you can endure。” With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent ofJapan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extendedfamily have been abandoned in favor of isolated, two generation households.Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work)and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken,the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorcerate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by morethan 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly one-quarter。

1. In the Westerners’ eyes, the postwar Japan was_____。

[A]under aimless development

[B]a positive example

[C]a rival to the West

[D]on the decline

2. According to the author, what may chiefly be responsible forthe moral decline of Japanese society?

[A]Women's participation in social activities is limited。

[B]More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs。

[C]Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics。

[D]The life-style has been influenced by Western values。

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